22 in German History
December 22, 1694
Birth of Hermann Samuel Reimarus in Hamburg, Germany. Reimarus was a
Deist who taught at a Gymnasium in Hamburg. Though he published theological
works during his lifetime, his lifetime work, Apologie oder Schutzschrift
die vernunftigen Verehrer Gottes, was yet unpublished at the time
of his death. Gotthold Lessing was the first to publish parts of the work
which evoked wide ranging controversy. The most controversial idea was
Reimarus's insistence that Jesus was simply a normal human with messianic
December 22, 1765
Birth of Johann Pfaff in Stuttgart, Germany. The mathematician proposed
the first general method of integrating partial differential equations
of the first order. The term "Pfaffian problem" was originated
in his honor.
December 22, 1818
Birth of St. Konrad von Parzham (1818-1894) in Parzham, Bavaria. From his
youth he had wanted to enter a monastery and become a priest. He was rejected
repeatedly, however. Finally at age 30 he was accepted into the Capuchin
monastery in Altotting, Bavaria. He spent the next 41 years in prayer.
He died on April 21, 1894. He is buried in the church of the monastery
which has been renamed the Brother Konrad Church. Konrad was canonized
by Pope Pius XI in 1934.
December 22, 1848
Birth of Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff in Markowitz, Germany. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff
was a classicist at the University of Berlin. He is noted for his outstanding
work, primarily in Greek studies. He effectively crippled the classics
career of Friedrich Nietzsche through his scathing review of Nietzsche's
first book, Die Geburt der Tragödie. Nietzsche at that time
was a young professor at the University of Basel.
December 22, 1899
Birth of Gustaf Grundgens in Dusseldorf, Germany.
December 22, 1900
The first car to be produced under the "Mercedes" name is delivered to its buyer: Emil Jellinek, the Austrian car racer, auto dealer to the rich and famous. Jellinek had commissioned the Mercedes car from the German company Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. It was faster, lighter, and sleeker than any car the company had ever made before, and Jellinek was confident that it would win races so handily that besotted buyers would snap it up. (He was so confident that he bought 36 of them, paying D-M-G 550,000 marks in all.) In exchange for his extraordinary patronage, the company agreed to name its new machine after Jellinek's 11-year-old daughter, Mercedes.
December 22, 1902
Death of Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing in Graz, Austria. Krafft-Ebing
was one of the early researchers in sexual aberrations. He was a professor
of psychiatry at the University of Strasbourg.
December 22, 1950
Death of Walter Damrosch in Breslau, Germany (now in Poland). Damrosch
was brought to the United States as a child. A conductor, he was a specialist
in the works of Richard Wagner. He conducted the New York Symphony Society,
the New York Oratorio Society and the Metropolitan Opera Company. In 1894
he organized and directed the Damrosch Opera Company which specialized
in German operas. He also composed several operas, none of which has achieved
December 22, 1980
Death of German Admiral Karl Donitz in Aumuhle, Germany. Donitz served
as a submarine officer in WWI. In defiance of the Treaty of Versailles
he rebuilt a submarine fleet after the war. In 1943 he was appointed commander
of the German navy. After Hitler's death, Donitz assumed the leadership
of the nation for a few days, long enough to surrender. The Nurnberg court
sentenced him to 10 years in prison, a term which he actually served.
December 22, 1989
Re-opening of the Berlin Wall at the Brandenburg Gate. Berlin's most famous landmark, the Brandenburg Gate has been opened for the first time in almost three decades. Thousands of people spilled on to the city's streets cheering in the pouring rain to watch the historic ceremony which effectively ends the division of East and West Germany.
The 200-year-old gate was built as a monument to Prussian power and it embodied German unity until Hitler's defeat at the end of the Second World War. It subsequently became one of the most potent symbols of Cold War division of Germany and of Europe.
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