21 in German History
September 21, 1348
The Jews of Zürich, Switzerland, are
accused of poisoning the wells.
September 21, 1522
The first publication of Martin Luther's
translation of the New Testament.
September 21, 1792
Birth of Johann Peter Eckermann in Winsen,
Germany. Eckermann was Goethe's secretary in Weimar. He
published Goethe's posthumous works and participated in the
publication of the first complete edition of his works. He
wrote Gespräche mit Goethe in den letzten Jahren sieines
Lebens, which provides detailed insight into the mind of
September 21 1812
Death of Emanuel Schikaneder in Vienna,
Austria. Schikaneder wrote the text to Mozart's opera, Die
September 21, 1860
Death of Arthur Schopenhauer in Frankfurt
am Main, Germany. Schopenhauer was possibly the most
pessimistic of all philosophers. He encountered Indian
philosophy while living in the intellectual atmosphere of
Weimar in 1813-14. In building his own philosophy he would
draw on the Indian as well as those of Plato and Kant which
he had studied at the university. His greatest work was Die
Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (1819). Shopenhauer's
writings had extensive influence on the thinking of Friedrich
Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Jacob Burckhardt, Gerhart
Hauptmann and Thomas Mann.
September 21, 1921
Death of Eugen Dühring in Nowawes, Germany. Düring was a political
philosopher. He practiced law and later taught at the University of Berlin.
His optimistic view of human nature and its ramifications in economics led
him to conflicts with the Marxists of his day. He was the negative subject
of a book by Friedrich Engels, Anti-Dühring. Dührings books include:
Captial und Arbeit (1865), Kritische Geschichte der Philosophie
(1869) and Cursus der National- und Socialökonomie (1873-92).
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