german_culture berlin_germany

english french spanish chinese

German Names
Germans Abroad
Homework Help
Learn German


Today in History
Travel to Germany

More topics...

Facts About Germany
Armed Forces
Mass Media

German History
Early History
Medieval History
Thirty Years' War
Weimar Republic
Third Reich
Honecker Era
Berlin Wall

German Recipes
Main Dishes
German Chocolate Cake
Easter Dishes
Halloween Dishes
Christmas Dishes

How To in Germany


Foreigners In Germany

As of early 1994, approximately 6.8 million registered foreigners resided in Germany. Turks made up the largest group (1.9 million), followed by immigrants from the former Yugoslavia (930,000), Italians (565,000), Greeks (350,000), Poles (260,000), and Austrians (185,000). About 25 percent of these foreign residents, most of whom were born in Germany, are under the age of eighteen. Because of the higher birth rate of foreigners, one of every ten births in Germany is to a foreigner. However, because recruiting of Gastarbeiter stopped in 1973 at the onset of a worldwide recession, most foreign workers are middle-aged and have lived in Germany for several decades.

The foreign population is not distributed evenly. More than two-thirds live in the Länder of North Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Württemberg, and Bavaria, where in 1990 they made up 9, 10, and 7 percent of the population, respectively. Foreigners live mainly in urban areas; in 1989 approximately 23 percent of foreign residents lived in Hamburg and Berlin. Foreigners often live in particular areas of large cities. (For example, Kreuzberg in Berlin and Kalk in Cologne both have large Turkish communities.) There are few foreigners in the new Länder. Of the roughly 190,000 foreigners living in the former GDR in 1989 because of work contracts, many have since been repatriated to Vietnam, Mozambique, Cuba, and other developing countries that were friendly to the GDR regime.

Foreigners began arriving in West Germany in large numbers in the 1960s after the construction of the Berlin Wall ended migration from East Germany. Recruited mainly from a number of countries in southern Europe, Gastarbeiter were not expected to stay beyond the terms of their work permits. However, many opted to remain in West Germany and subsequently brought their families there to live. As a result, and owing to higher birth rates, the foreign population in Germany has increased substantially (see table 9, Appendix). By offering financial incentives, West German authorities hoped to encourage some Gastarbeiter to return to their native countries, but relatively few took advantage of these provisions. A tightening of entry restrictions also caused many to remain in Germany rather than risk not being readmitted after spending time in their home country.

Although no longer recruited abroad, Germany's foreign residents remain vital to the economy, parts of which would shut down if they were to depart. They also contribute to the country's welfare and social insurance programs by paying twice as much in taxes and insurance premiums as they receive in benefits. In the long term, their presence may be seen as vital because they have a positive birth rate. The birth rate among native Germans is so low that some studies have estimated that Germany will require approximately 200,000 immigrants a year to maintain its population into the next century and support its array of social welfare benefits.

Most Germans do not see their country as a land of immigration like the United States or Canada, and no demographic or social issue has generated greater controversy than the presence of foreigners in the Federal Republic. In an opinion poll taken in 1982, two-thirds of West Germans said that there were too many foreigners in Germany, and one-half thought that foreigners should be sent back to their countries of origin. In 1992 another poll found that the "foreigner problem" ranked as the most serious issue for western Germans and was third in importance for eastern Germans.

According to the foreigners law that went into effect in mid-1993, foreigners living in Germany for fifteen years may become German citizens if they have no criminal record and renounce their original citizenship. Young foreigners who have resided eight years in Germany may become citizens if they have attended German schools for six years and apply for citizenship between the ages of sixteen and twenty-three. Usually, however, German citizenship depends not on where one is born (ius solis) but on the nationality of the father or, since 1974, on the mother (ius sanguinis). Thus, to many, German citizenship depends on being born German and cannot rightfully be acquired through a legal process. This notion makes it practically impossible for naturalized citizens or their children to be considered German. Some reformers advocate eliminating the concept of German blood in the 1913 law regulating citizenship, but the issue is an emotional one, and such a change has little popular support.

Registered Foreign Residents in Germany by Nationality, Selected Years, 1961-92 (in thousands)

Nationality 1961 1970 1987 1992
European Community        
Greece 42 305 256 346
Italy 197 528 500 558
Portugal 1 48 69 99
Spain 44 239 129 134
Other 107 186 286 370
Total European Community 391 1,306 1,240 1,507
Austria 57 123 150 185
Poland n.a. 17 121 286
Turkey 7 429 1,454 1,855
United States 15 48 76 104
Yugoslavia 16 410 552 1,018
Other 200 268 648 1,541
TOTAL 686 2,601 4,241 6,496

- Population
- Women In Society
- Marriage
- Social Structure
- Religion
- Urbanization

  • Geography (lands and capitals, climate)
  • Society (population, religion, marriage, urbanization, social structure, immigration)
  • Education (elementary, junior, senior, vocational, higher)
  • Economy (the Economic Miracle, financial system, Bundesbank, business culture)
  • Politics (government, the Chancellor, the President, parties, Bundestag)
  • Mass Media (newspapers, radio and TV)
  • Armed Forces (army, navy, air forces, police)






Like us on Facebook!

Advertising. Copyright © Tatyana Gordeeva 1998-2012 Contact. Privacy Policy. Site Map
Powered by Website design company